The East and the West

The East and the West

The concepts of East and West cross over any definition. This does not mean that these phenomena are devoid of any real basis. Moreover, they are undeniable political reality and their antagonism undoubtedly constitutes one of the main motives of modern political history. There is no doubt that the East and West have their basis in history, although, as noted above, their importance should not be overestimated.

Just as North and South, East and West remain the nodal point of history, which determine its axis. Themselves not liable to the definitions, they define and determine history, history takes place in the relations vested by them. Here is the four corners of the world, and four of the cycles of the time also, flowing downward, in progress of degradation.

North and South, at the same time, have a much greater significance. It is evident from the earliest times. Migration of peoples and races, sacred geography and toponymy, the role that this sides of the world have in the traditions and legends of diverse, but most of all in tradition of Indo-European people, all that very clearly confirmed this opinion. The importance of North-South axis, as is in our epoch, may be obscured, suppressed, but it does not become less real and less important. North-South axis remains vertical axis of history and sacred geography. In contrast, the East-West dualism only has a modest significance and meaning, therefore also raised later in the human history than the former axis (North against South). It, at best, belong to the history and its contingency; dualism North and South is a prehistoric or, rather, over-historical and meta-historical.

In his study „Planetary tension between East and West and the confrontation of the Earth and Sea“, Carl Schmitt notes that „collision between East and West is not polar by its nature. The Earth has the North and South Poles, but there is no East or West. Geographical conflict East–West in terms of our planet is not something fixed and static, it's just a dynamic relationship connected with the daily waning of the light“.


Drang nach Osten


East-West axis is determined by the daily path of the Sun. Nations that come into play in the history are moving in the same direction (from East to West, not on the other way). Does this path – that is, among many others, felt great English geographer John Mackinder – is the main path of history, its "geographical axis?"

There is no doubt that contact, but above all the conflict between East and West are very old and important subject of history, motive of it which, after all, repeats very often. To the constant threat from the East – the kind embodied by nomadic peoples such as the Scythians, Huns or Goths – correspond attempts of the West to subdue himself the East, to colonize it. Along with the wars to the East, in long columns, move and missionaries, who do not bring with them only light of a new religion or a political, imperial idea.

The very same questions, although renamed in something different terms – translated into a new language – all were transposed to our time. In contrast to a small peninsula in the west of the continent, which is home of the cities and urban civilization is immeasurable space of steppes and plains. Today it is the former Soviet East, above all Russia. Hitler's „Drang nach Osten“ has its immediate predecessor in Napoleon Bonaparte – both ends with the same outcome: the apparent triumph, after which was disaster. The defeat is the result of an inability to win the enormous space which, for the indigenous population is not problem. The plot of the great battles of the East and West maybe always was the same, but the actors in it always were new: Greeks against the Persians, Romans and Byzantines against the Scythians and Sarmatians, Germans against the Slavs... And, once before: Dananians against Troyans. The importance of this topic should not be overestimated, and even less is need  to substantiate (on the way they do that Mackinder and his influential followers), because it will give us week insight into the other no less important "axis of history", like the one that connects the North with the South. Ancient Achaeans coming from the North and Northwest (not from the West) and were originally stock-breeders, and "haters of cities", same like the Vedic Aryan, which captured the Indian subcontinent, destroying ancient, urban and mercantile, Dravidian civilization.

East and West nevertheless remain vague terms that elude from definition, and even from precise determinations. Unclear are also lines which separating them, and that is more present if we go deeper into the past. Dravidian Mohenjo-Daro is “more west” than is Sparta, Mycenaean culture is "more at east" than Troy. The same is true for the La Tene (Celtic) culture in relation to Rome. Not even in Herodotus work, although he has the ambition to describe the "early touches of the East and the West" and explain the causes of their wars, borders still do not have that strength which it will gain in later periods: they separating the known from the unknown, not East from the West. One of them is the line that makes Istros river (lower Danube), separating the land of Scythian Sigynnes, from Thrace, Scythian land which "extends all the way to the Venice on the Adriatic". Herodotus noticed also: "...appears that behind Istria is an endless desert". And also: "The Thracians are saying that in the region of Istria whole land is covered, flooded by bees, because of which no one can go further."

Herodotus, nevertheless, have clearly looked at East, its peoples, nations and customs, than many subsequent authors. His work remains exemplary, but still is far away from its fully, complite interpretation.


Wall made of „interconnected fears and mountains“


Tacitus (56 AD-117 AD) on the contrary, accepts describe to the Rome a no hostile and barbarous Germans – Germans which, in his words, "are divided from Sarmatia and Dacia by mutual, interconnected fear and by mountains" – but he avoid to describe the Sarmatia. He is, after all, not described it, German-s land, on the basis of his personal inspection, but by reports of the older authors, and that speaks for itself. Priscus, who crosses the Danube and enter in the land of the Limigantes (now the Banat and Backa, in north Serbia) to visit Attila's palace, also comes in an unknown country. Similarly to Tacitus, which often was not able to differentiate Gales and Germans and which was not able, actually, to say whether Veneta people (ancestors of the Slavs) counts in the Germans or in the Sarmatians, and Priscus das not know what language speak the local population. Wall of the "mutual fear" here is even stronger and more opaque than in Tacitus work. Also, noteworthy is the fact that Priscus was on a diplomatic mission: writing about the Huns, he is actually talking about the enemy. Is it, for example, his description of Attila's funeral – ritual followed with unsurpassed brutality – really just an detached eyewitness report or is an example of political propaganda of that time?

Stronger than the limes who shared "civilization" from "barbarians" is the limes set by the faith. The division between Western and Eastern Christianity remains deeper than that which halved the Western world, but it is due to the fact that the Protestant heresy originated only in the bosom of the Catholic Church. Trying to explain splitting into East and West only by interpretations about style in the rule, and also try to justify it with the political reasons – is not characteristic of our time, but and for some Hellenic historians – and is just unsustainable today as  was at the time of the Peloponnesian War. Tyrants of the ancient world, as well as the late Emperors of Rome, or some princes of the Italian Renaissance period, all them, we can, in this case, classify under the expression of genuine oriental despotism. Sparta das not corresponds to the democratic ideal, in any way, but, that does not prevent Plato to admire it, putting its aristocratic system high above the Athenian democracy. We should also disregard all historical eras, such as the European Middle Ages or totalitarian regimes in XX century. Scythians, on the contrary, if we can trust the descriptions of the Greek writers lived more freely than the Greeks. Example of much purer democracy, than that which were established in mercantilistic republics of the Mediterranean can be found in the institution of the parliament of Slavs.

Mackinder, certainly, was not the first nor the last one that tried to add to the theme of the conflict between East and West and racial connotations: "Scythians of Herodotus and Homer's story, 'who drink the milk of mares', had the same ideals of life and belonged to the same race as  later steppe inhabitants". To these "slant-eyed" and "relentless hordes of horsemen without ideals", according to the author, is opposed the white dolichocephalystic man from the west, north and south of Europe. The result of that millennium long fight against invaders from the East are the cities of western culture, modern urban civilization in general. Scythians, however, contrary to what he believed Mackinder, were not at all "slant-eyed", but almost pure blood Indo-Europeans; the Goths and the Huns were the motley alliance of different races, ethnic groups and nations. Urban civilization, moreover, existed and long before the invasion of the Huns or Scythians, and even before the Indo-European migrations. Their traces can be found in the Danube region in Europe, and in Dravidian's India and also in the Mediterranean, in the form of the old Iberian and Cretan civilization. All they disappeared just with the conquest of white dolichocephalysts Indo-Europeans. The memory of this is preserved in Homer's story about Troyan War.


Countries that sink in the evening light


We all know what is the East.

Sumptuous palaces and decked temples, countries such is Tibet or inaccessible, wild, cruel Mongolia – Baghdad and Babylon, cities swarming with minarets and golden gates, which close streets and bazaars are full of dark-skinned traders and strangers with slanted eyes.

The East, in front of our eyes, appears in its ancient splendor, splendor which was described even by Herodotus, and he described it as a historian and as a traveler; and was followed by many other adventurers, like was Marco Polo, then Antoni Ferdynand Ossendowski or Alexander O'Neal. The vast expanse of desert and oasis in which stops caravans, precipitous mountains and endless plains, homeland of warriors, horsemen, or land those who are moving on camels... The world that never ceases to be amazed and which gave the birth and to horrors and to kings, wizards and the invading hordes. It also never ceases to cause fear and suspicion. Today it is one ravaged East, but further East who is remembered that the more recently created a fabulous empires and formed the armies that were flooded everything, such as those led by Darius, Attila and Genghis Khan.

In contrast, in a different light, emerging the West. West is the home of the city-republics and principalities of small, coastal countries that sink in the evening light. These are: the first Iberia and the Western Mediterranean, than Eastern Mediterranean, and then, much later, and the British Isles. Shallow seas and narrow gorges, ridges and ravines into which are compressed the armies whose fate was decided in a single moment, in the decisive battles, such was the Battle of Thermopylae. It's colorful, narrow area in which were created a powerful fleet, and from which it supreme reigns the seas. That West has its own prehistory, mostly forgotten, with the ancient port of Cadiz in Iberia and many other cities and trade colonies of Mediterranean civilization, whose traces we can find today in the Mediterranean. Carthage is their archetype, ancient civilization of Crete and Iberia also. But, West, would not be identified with Europe which, since earliest times, has a central position. In Hellenistic period, "Europe" is the world north of Greece and the Mediterranean, which excludes Hellas. "Europe", that are countries in the hinterland of the trade colonies, settled with the "barbarian" peoples, Scythians, Celts and Germans; the continent that stands opposite to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. ("West" of the Hellenic period has little in common with the civilization that occurs in the new century and which was baptized by itself with that name; and we need to make the notion how, even from the time of Herodotus, the term simply described countries that were west from Persia, Egypt and Mesopotamia.)

A true West is the one that grows with the epoch of overseas travels, with Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, Vasco da Gama, Magellan... The consequence of their findings is the creating of a new world, completely turned to the seas and oceans, which primarily consists of Iberia (Spain and Portugal), and after of Britain and its North American "island". That, in what Portugal or Spain were not completely succesfull – to carry out a complete re-orientation from the land to the sea – managed England, somewhere at the beginning of XVII century. West then quickly spread to almost the entire hemisphere, above all, to the Atlantic, the countries that surround it, and it seems it starts to be the very opposite, and often open enemies of continental Europe. Their counterparts and antipod is the ancient East, which very fast (when it comes to the distribution of power) lost its former significance, becoming easy prey, quarry to the colonists and sailors from the West. In the West, raised again thalassocratic and mercantile empires, this time with the truly planetary dimensions and significance. So, is no surprise for us that just a few centuries after the West will try to create the first global civilization, a civilization that would want to be, against all racial, ethnic and cultural differences, extended in the whole world.


Planetary „War the Sea against the Land“


In the above-mentioned study of East-West confrontation Carl Schmitt refers to one historical example: „In July of 1812, when Napoleon approaches to Moscow, Goethe wrote a panegyric allegedly to Queen Maria Luisa, and in fact to her husband – the French emperor: "Where there are thousands of people confused, all solves just one man (Napoleon Bonaparte)”.

The German poet continues, taking in the consideration the global aspect of the confrontation Land against Sea:

„That over which the dark centuries long contemplated,

With the brightest spiritual glance He resumed,

All unworthy was craunched into the dust and ashes;

Only the Sea and the Land here are determinant.“


(„Worueber trueb Jahrhunderte gesonnen

Er uebersicht’s im hellsten Geisteslicht.

Das Kleinliche ist alles weggeronnen,

Nur Meer und Erde haben hier Gewicht.“)


And further Schmitt also says: "On that way Goethe, a typical representative of the West, in the summer of 1812 made his own choice in the favor of the Land against the Sea".

The history of the planetary clash between East and the West, according to Schmitt, in all its fullness can be reduced to the basic duality of these elements: The Soil and the Water, the Land and the Sea. Planetary „war Sea against the land” is the key in apprehension of the centuries-old conflict of East and West. But, we need to keep in the mind that this tension is not extreme and is not static: in Goethe's time, for example France was the West and Land (or, in other words, a representative of the continental West), today, as almost all of Western Europe, is in the Sea principle.

All other attempts to make differences between the East and the West, either political or cultural, to explain it with the other reasons, showed quite conditional and limited value. One of them is try to explain the fundamental differences between East and West with the iconographic interpretation (in the sense of "the iconography of the space", about which wrote Jean Gottmann, so that try which describe differences in relation to the picture, where the East is traditionally performed as an strong opponent of visual impressions, images and icons, and the West as their defender. Goethe, according to Schmidt, "was a typical representative of the West". But, in the summer of 1812, Napoleon was on the side of Land, continent and Schmitt adds: "For him, it (means Napoleon's policy) was Land, the Soil (...) German poet sincerely has hope that the West will remain the epitome of Land principle, of the continental power, and that Napoleon, like new Alexander the Great, will, with the new force, restore coastal territory and then the Land will come into its complete fore."

In general, in the decisive moments of history, observes Schmitt, the conflicts of the forces involved in the wars starts to convert in wars between elements of the Land against elements of the Sea: „It has been noticed in chronicles about the wars between Sparta and Athens, Rome and Carthage“. Sometimes, these conflicts were confined to the Mediterranean area but, so called new time gives and new life to this struggle, some entirely new quality, introducing in the war against World's Land not just civilizations of the Sea, but and civilization of the Ocean (between each other is a conceptual difference). A typical example of such civilization of the Ocean is England, since the epoch of overseas conquest, or, at the present time, example is United States, which also has power based on the domination of the world's oceans.

Carl Schmitt is, with these considerations, continuing the idea of English geographer Mackinder, which was talking about the war between countries of the Sea against the "central land", "central country", whose heart makes Russia. Otherwise, the formula itself, "War of Sea against the Earth", belongs to French admiral Raoul Castex (1878-1968), which, in this simple formula, summed up the main motive of world history. It should be said that this is not only a "form of power" – every state, every civilization based its power on the development of one of these two principles – but, above all, is a word about the two fundamental aspects of human existence. These are two mutually exclusive modes of human existence on Earth.

The principle of the Sea (or Ocean), in the end, symbolizes the blind forces, volatility, inconstancy, chaos – the principle of Land, on the contrary, is static, unchangeable, Order. Symbol of man's existenceat on the sea is a Ship, a symbol of man's existence on land is static, is Home. From the principle of the Sea we can take the principle of techniques, and techniques which is "separated from all the norms of tradition" (Arnold Toynbee). The centuries-old war of “Sea against the Land”, however, is not anachronistic. According to Schmidt's prediction, "confronting Land and Sea (and the Ocean) will reach the final world-historical scope only when Mankind conquer the entire planet".

The very same principles, after all, can be developed from the point when humanity comes into its cosmic era: the future of cosmic civilization will be built or on the principle of islands of trading and shopping, as sort of "mercantile empires", or will be based on principle of static existence of man on the Earth, the principle from which can be build a great continental empires. The difference that separates one from the other and then will be that one which separate the Home from the Boat.


God makes the Kings


One might think that it is justified to equate tellurocratic empires and telluric, chthonic civilization, in the sense in which these terms evolved Johann Jakob Bachofen.

However, is not so: while developing on Land, tellurocratic empires are based on the idea of the triumph over the destructive power of Land, the Soil. In its very basic form is the idea of the Space, space that is designed and dedicated, sacralized, and its principle is because of that is Uranian principle, heavenly rather than earthly. Hence the fact that all great tellurocratic empires were sanctified entirety, a whole (as is evidenced by terms such as “Holy Russia” and the “Holy Roman-German Empire”). It is base of the ancient belief that the royal lines, family are descended from the gods. So Joseph de Maistre says: „God makes Kings, in real, factual. He raises the royal family; perfecting them in the middle of clouds which obscuring their origin. They then appear, crowned with honor and the glory; they promote them self alone – and that is the biggest sign of their legitimacy. As is their own ascend is without any use of the power, on one side, and also is without a clear decision on the other. It is a kind of majestic tranquility that is not easy to express with the words. I think that legitimate usurpation would be appropriate expression (if is not too bold) for exactly this kind of origin (accession to the power) of these which and the times runs to bless“ (J. de Maistre, „Essai sur le principles générateur des constitutions politiques“).

All this does not apply to thalassocracy, in which is no trace of the idea of sacred authority of the state. Trade based republics of the Mediterranean, as well as the North American republics, remain completely secular constructs, administered by understanding and interests of those who are, essentially, equal each other. Tellurocratic states, in their final sense, are – Space which is sacralized, sanctified, thalassocracy states are opposite – the Time, with its dynamics, variability, volatility. The ideal type of these second is therefore merchantilistic Republic; but, the ideal tellurocratic form is the Empire, an empire based on the sacred authority of the state and its ruler. The person of the ruler is personification of the sacred principle: he is not only the object of worship, but and of real apotheosis, as the elect of God, God's anointed.

Elemental the Land and the Sea, after all, has always been perceived qualitatively different. Spoken in the language of myth, the man "got his environment, by separating the Land from the Sea. The Sea remains fraught with danger and evil. „Sea remains as elemental, ominous force, due to the fact that it is not man's natural environment“. And further: „I will notice the fact that humanity has needed to make a considerable effort to overcome its ancient, religious horror, fear from the Sea“ (Carl Schmitt), about that also testifies and the Biblical Book of Genesis.


The fight among mans


The same author (C. Schmitt) mentions a thought that is written by clairvoyant child-poet Arthur Rimbaud, which is: „The spiritual battle is just as harsh as is the struggle that leads among the mans“. Juxtaposition of these two ways of human existence on Earth – maritime and terrestrial – is absolute and uncompromising. Nothing like this of course does not exist in the nature: it would be absurd to say that there is enmity between sea's and terrestrial animals. Rabbi Isaac Abravanel (1437-1508) describes the struggle going on between the Leviathan (sea monsters) and Behemoth (land animal), but this is the only mythical transposition of the struggle which going on between people, between two opposing and irreconcilable modes of human existence, and finally, between the two principles on which is build the state and civilization: "Behemoth trying to tear Leviathan by teeth and horns, while Leviathan closes jaw and nose (with his fins) of land animal, so he can not eat or breathe..."

Conflict East against West, Land against Sea, and today clash the continents against ocean really can reach frightening intensity: it lies at the root of the world's great wars and revolutions in XX century. But opposition East and West remains as horizontal axis of history, as opposed to the vertical, represented by the North-South axis. The importance of this axis, as mentioned above, can be, as in our time, suppressed, obscured, but it does not lose its relevance.

In general, unlike conflict East and West, it is the polar collision and below it, in a series of changes and metamorphosis, is hiding basically always the same tension as the eternal return, eternal recurrence of the identical. And right here, according to Schmitt, "is shaped Nomos of the Earth", until the tension between East and West, "between Land and Sea, causing a natural, objective context in which the Nomos is shaped".

Collision between East and West through history can take different forms. Today, we agree with the statement of Dragos Kalajic, pronounced in his “Stronghold”, that the antagonism between East and West in our time has sense of antagonism among world of traditions and world of anti-traditions: "as we, in the highest levels of the East recognize just the last traces of the Indo-European civilization. In the history, in these geographical regions are given the last remains, latest configuration of Indo-Europeans contents (...), and with the virtue of those facilities these contents longest opposed, resisted to the contaminated forces of anti-tradition or `modern world`“. But by that we are moving into the realms of antagonism, which, in contrast to antagonism of East-West, is not historically, than metahistorical, and which is not manufactured or conditioned by history, but which make history, and which not its subject, but it is object. It is of course about collision between the North and South, which qualitatively and hierarchically precedes antagonism of the East and the West.


The sacred side of the world, the nearest to the Heaven


Above the historical landscape of the world, lie, in the dark, archaic landscapes of the North, they lay in the eternal ice; north, for all Indo-European peoples, is land of our ancestors, is our lost primary land. All, as Virgil says, comes to us from the northern peoples of the Hyperborea... To know it or not, the North for the all peoples of Indo-European origin and tradition is with the primordial, central importance. North, which, and in the new century, has a completely different fate, as is evidenced by the rise of the Russian Empire, then the Soviet Union and now Russia. Russia, in fact, as in his “History and Utopia” lucidly observes Emil Cioran is not the East, it is North:

„It (Russia) produces the impression that we are facing with the North, but some special North, which cannot be reduced to analysis, marked by some lethargy and hope that terrifies us, marked by one night filled with many explosion, and also with one dawn that we will remember. In these Hyperboreans, who’s past and present, looks as it belongs to someone else, not to our persistence, is no any trace of frivolity and arbitrariness of Mediterraneans. In the front of the reputation of the West, they feel uncomfortable, which is a consequence of their long awaking from sleepiness and their unexhausted strength: this is the feeling of inferiority of very strong man.“

On the North falls entirely different light than the one that shines in so called historical world, it's hard to tell it is dark of winter nights, or is polar light of dawn. It has no history in the true sense of the word, its ancient past remains shrouded in mystery. We should see a description of what the North is, for example, in the book of German medieval chronicler Adam of Bremen (1075) and also “A Brief History of Norway” (XIII century) descriptions, in which we will find archaic peoples, marked with longevity, and nations with sirens and wizard, with Scylla and Charybdis, and finally marked and with the terrible swirl, which means end of the world, nestled north from the coast of Iceland. Below them is a wild variety of the South: Africa, what was called in the time of Herodotus „Libya“, place where later gone and Roman legions. In general, the North is the sacred side of the world, the globe, „that which is the nearest to the Heaven“, and South is its demonic counterparts.

From the earliest period were migrations, conquests from North to South, to its warm seas. They make a significant part of the (proto)history of Indo-European peoples, whose last chapter ends with the colonial conquest. But, until the new century, this conquest did not extend very afar to the South. It covers only a tiny line of the coast of Africa, effectively avoids Arabia and the southern part of the Indian subcontinent.

The North, we will repeat it, is and proto-homeland and place of origin of Indo-European peoples. Thus, from the far North, from the area of the circle around the Pole, starts migration of ancient proto-Indo-Europeans to the South. Old Persian “Avesta”, the holy book of Zoroastrianism, remember that northic "Aryan Paradise", Airyana Vaejo, which was destroyed by glaciation, and remember and the following fifteen countries in which the road of scattering was actual. A list of these countries, as noted by Tilak in his famous study „Arctic home in the Vedas“, is undoubtedly authentic, because, among other things, „an ancient Persian and Greek names (for countries) which are in the list, were posted on the descriptions of Achaemenids kings and in the works of Greek writers, after the ouster of the dynasty of Achaemenidas by Alexander the Great“.


Nec plus ultra


It is reasonable, however, ask the following question: if only epochs of new time geographical discoveries and overseas conquests include peripheral areas, such as it has always been and North America continent, in the minds and in the e history of the people of Eurasia? Is their existence was possible to see as well known, even much earlier, before the Renaissance and Middle Age, in the ancient times and even in the prehistoric times, though it was not common knowledge, but knowledge which was gradually subsided in the sphere of the unconscious and/or esoteric knowledge?

Just like the wars, contacts between East and West had been there since the earliest times. The memory of this is found in the ancient legends and myths; such is the myth of Atlantis, which Plato noted. Plato clearly speaks of the "mainland opposite to the islands, which are surrounded by the Sea", and that mainland can be recognized only as American continent. (Remembering the northern proto-homeland is preserved in the Greek myth about Hyperborea and the other related myths of Indo-European peoples, and not only in them.) However, it is not always possible to accurately distinguish "real" from the symbolic continents, countries and cities listed in the scriptures, from the Vedas to the Bible. In they are constantly intersecting religious and secular plans, natural and sacred geography, physics and metaphysics. But, in general, all of these fabulous countries are not the product of mere imagination – it is rather a delicate memory, for which is only necessary to find the appropriate keys.

In the tradition of many European nations, we find mention of the "Green Land", "Land of the Deads", which is somewhere in the West. This is the "half material world that resembles the Greek Hades or the Hebrew Sheol. It is a land of twilight and sunset, from which the mere mortals cannot escape and into which only devotee can enter” (Alexander Dugin: „Mystery of Eurasia“). Rene Guenon claims that the symbol "$", which today is the financial emblem of America, is a simplified sacred seal, stamp whose meaning can be translated as „nec plus ultra“, or literally, „no further“, which was originally meant the prohibition of passing through Pillars of Hercules and the journey towards non-human worlds in the West.

Links Vikings with the North American continent today are and archaeologically proven. Staying in Labrador and New Faulend, and intersecting with the natives, the old Vikings left behind them descendants, Mandan North American Indians. Researcher Jacques de Millau set a valid hypothesis based on the contacts Vikings with Inca culture. Not without support, is and  the assumption that the Phoenician sailors, who were prevented other nations to sail through the Pillars of Hercules, knew about  the existence of the American continent, and that also is possible to believe how they kept with it more or less permanent connection. America, a continent in the extreme west point in the world, must been known to the peoples of the Eurasian proto-historical, ancient times, and traces of this knowledge can be found in their oldest legends and myths.


Translated by Vesna S. Disić