让我们从最简单的部分开始:俄罗斯。在这里,塔克-卡尔森成了俄罗斯社会两极对立者的焦点:意识形态爱国者和西方精英,但他们仍然忠于普京和特别军事行动。对于爱国者来说,塔克-卡尔森只是 "我们中的一员"。他是传统主义者,是右翼保守派,是自由主义的坚定反对者。这就是二十一世纪俄罗斯沙皇使者的模样。








现在54个非洲国家总计占全球GDP 3%,但人口占 17%。非洲一半人口在20岁以下,而全球平均水平是30岁。随着人口增长,非洲国家GDP也会持续增长。过去10年,非洲总GDP增长1.5倍。非洲也是多种自然资源的宝库,煤炭、石油、天然气、锰矿、铜矿、铁矿、铝矿。这些攸关未来世界经济的发展。


Although the concept of hegemony in Critical Theory is based on Antonio Gramsci’s theory, it is necessary to distinguish this concept’s position on Gramscianism and neo-Gramscianism from how it is understood in the realist and neo-realist schools of IR.

The classical realists use the term “hegemony” in a relative sense and understand it as the “actual and substantial superiority of the potential power of any state over the potential of another one, often neighboring countries.” Hegemony might be understood as a regional phenomenon, as the determination of whether one or another political entity is considered a “hegemon” depends on scale. Thucydides introduced the term itself when he spoke of Athens and Sparta as the hegemons of the Peloponnesian War, and classical realism employs this term in the same way to this day. Such an understanding of hegemony can be described as “strategic” or “relative.”

In neo-realism, “hegemony” is understood in a global (structural) context. The main difference from classical realism lies in that “hegemony” cannot be regarded as a regional phenomenon. It is always a global one. The neorealism of K. Waltz, for example, insists that the balance of two hegemons (in a bipolar world) is the optimal structure of power balance on a world scale[ii]. R. Gilpin believes that hegemony can be combined only with unipolarity, i.e., it is possible for only a single hegemon to exist, this function today being played by the USA.

In both cases, the realists comprehend hegemony as a means of potential correlation between the potentials of different state powers. 

Gramsci's understanding of hegemony is completely different and finds itself in a completely opposite theoretical field. To avoid the misuse of this term in IR, and especially in the TMW, it is necessary to pay attention to Gramsci’s political theory, the context of which is regarded as a major priority in Critical Theory and TMW. Moreover, such an analysis will allows us to more clearly see the conceptual gap between Critical Theory and TMW.